This how-to is 3 years old but it’s aged well.1 Ever since going from a black iPhone 7 to a white iPhone 8, I’ve quit using a pure black wallpaper, but I tried it out David Smith’s method just now and it works perfectly. You never have any indication that there are invisible icons on the first row.
I’m hopeful that in the future, iOS will allow transparency in the icons. That’d be huge. In addition to giving icon designers more options, it’d let us do this sort of thing with any wallpaper, not just a black one.